Unit I: Introduction to Bioprocesses
Historical development of bioprocess technology, an overview of traditional and
modern applications of biotechnology industry, outline of an integrated bioprocess
and the various (upstream and down stream) unit operations involved in
bioprocesses, generalized process flow sheets.
Unit II: Fermentation Processes-I
General requirements of fermentation processes, Basic design and construction of
fermentor and ancillaries, Main parameters to be monitored and controlled in
Unit III: Fermentation Processes-II
An overview of aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes and their application
in the biotechnology industry, solid-substrate, slurry fermentation and its applications,
whole cell immobilization, behaviour of microbes in different reactors (air lift, fluidized,
batch, continuous fed batch condition).
Unit IV: Media Design
Medium requirements for fermentation processes, Carbon, nitrogen, minerals,
vitamins and other complex nutrients, oxygen requirements, medium formulation
for optimal growth and product formation, examples of simple and complex media,
design and usage of various commercial media for industrial fermentations
Unit V: Sterilization
Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms, batch and continuous heat. Sterilization
of liquid media, filter sterilization of liquid media, Air. Design of sterilization equipment.
Unit VI: Metabolic Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry of Cell growth and product formation, elemental balances, degrees
of reduction of substrate and biomass, available electron balances, yield coefficients
of biomass and product formation, maintenance coefficients.
Unit VII: Energetics
Energetic analysis of microbial growth and product formation, oxygen consumption
and heat evolution in aerobic cultures, thermodynamic efficiency of growth.
Unit VIII: Kinetics Of Microbial Growth And Product Formation
Phases of cell growth in batch cultures, Simple unstructured kinetic models for
microbial growth, Monod model, Growth of filamentous organisms. Growth
associated (primary) and non - growth associated (secondary) product formation
Kinetics. Leudeking-Piret models, substrate and product inhibition on cell growth
and product formation. Introduction to Structured Models for growth and product
1. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals Bailey and Ollis, McGraw Hill (2nd
2. Bioprocess Engineering, Shule and Kargi, Prentice Hall, 1992.
1. Stanbury, P. F., Whitaker, A., & Hall, S. J., (1998), Principles of fermentation
Technology, 2nd ed., Elsevier Science Publishers, BV, Amsterdam.